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The Wellington continued to serve throughout the war in other duties, particularly as an anti-submarine aircraft. It holds the distinction of having been the only British bomber that was produced for the duration of the war, and of having been produced in a greater quantity than any other British-built bomber. The Wellington remained as first-line equipment when the war ended, although it had been increasingly relegated to secondary roles. A larger heavy bomber aircraft designed to Specification B.

Many elements of the Wellington were also re-used in a civil derivative, the Vickers VC. In response, Vickers conducted a design study, led by Chief Designer Rex Pierson [3] Early on, Vickers' chief structures designer Barnes Wallis proposed the use of a geodesic airframe , inspired by his previous work on airships and the single-engined Wellesley light bomber. On 28 February , two versions of the aircraft, one with each of the selected powerplants, were submitted to the tender.

Other refinements of the design had also been implemented and approved, such as the adoption of variable-pitch propellers , and the use of Vickers-produced gun turrets in the nose and tail positions. In spite of a traditional preference of the establishment to strictly adhere to the restrictive tare weight for the aircraft established in the tender, both Pierson and Wallis firmly believed that their design should adopt the most powerful engine available. Andrews stated to be "a very high figure for a medium bomber of those days". During the development phase of the aircraft, the political and military situations in Europe drastically transformed.

With the rise of fascist dictatorships in Germany and Italy , the British government had become keen to re-evaluate the capabilities of the nation's armed forces, including the Royal Air Force RAF. In early , an initial prototype, K , which was originally designated as a Type , was assembled.

Pilot`s and Flight Engineer`s Notes

The prototype could accommodate a payload of nine lb or lb bombs, and both nose and tail gun positions were fitted with hand-operated turrets furnished with a single gun in each, provisions for a third retractable gun in a dorsal position were also present. On 5 June , the name Crecy was initially chosen for the type, and it was publicly displayed as such.

On 8 September , the name Wellington was adopted for the type; Pierson later explained that this was due to Air Ministry nomenclature and also followed the tradition set by the Vickers Wellesley of possessing names referring back to the Duke of Wellington. On 15 June , K conducted its maiden flight from Brooklands. The cause was the failure of the elevator 's horn balance due to excessive slipstream exposure, leading to the aircraft inverting and rapidly descending into terrain.

It was completely destroyed in the crash, which also resulted in the death of Smurthwaite the navigator. In addition to the prototype, refinement of the Wellington's design was influenced by the issuing of Specifications B. On 23 December , the first production Wellington Mk I , L , conducted its first flight; L subsequently participated in an intensive flight programme. Accordingly, modifications, including the interlinking of the flaps and the elevator trim tabs , were successfully trialled on L to resolve the issue.

With this flurry of order and production having been assured by the end of , Vickers set about simplifying the manufacturing process of the aircraft and announced a target of building one Wellington per day. Construction took longer to build due to the geodesic fuselage in comparison to other designs using monocoque approach, leading to criticism of the Wellington. In the late s, Vickers built Wellingtons at a rate of one per day at Weybridge and 50 a month at Broughton in North Wales. Shadow factories were set up to produce parts for the Wellington all over the British Isles.

In October , as a propaganda and morale-boosting exercise, workers at Broughton gave up their weekend to build Wellington number LN rushed by the clock.

Product details

The bomber was assembled in 23 hours 50 minutes, and took off after 24 hours 48 minutes, beating the record of 48 hours set by a factory in California. Each Wellington was usually built within 60 hours. In October , the Mk I entered service with 9 Squadron. The Wellington went on to be built in 16 separate variants, in addition to two training conversions after the war. The number of Wellingtons built totalled 11, of all versions, a greater quantity produced than any other British bomber. The Wellington Mk I was quickly superseded by several successive variants featuring various improvements.

Additional information

Improvements to the turrets and the strengthening of the undercarriage quickly resulted in the Wellington Mk IA. Due to armament difficulties encountered that left the Wellington with weaker than intended defences, the Wellington Mk IB was proposed for trials, but appears to have been unbuilt.

Pilot s notes for lancaster ii four hercules vi or xvi engines

The principal change on this model was the adoption of the Merlin engine in place of the Pegasus XVIII; other modifications included hydraulic and oxygen system revisions along with the installation of cabin heating and an astrodome. By late , the Mk II was capable of delivering superior performance to the Mk IC, such as higher cruising and top speeds, increased all-up weight or alternatively greater range, and a raised ceiling.

The Vickers Wellington was a twin-engined long-range medium bomber , initially powered by a pair of Bristol Pegasus radial engines , which drove a pair of de Havilland two-pitch propellers. Various different engines and propeller configurations were used on different variants of the aircraft, which included several models of both the Bristol Hercules and the iconic Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. The Wellington typically had a crew of five. Defensive armaments comprised the forward and tail turret gun positions, along with a retractable revolving ventral turret.

Due to the high cruising speeds of the Wellington, it had been realised that fully enclosed turrets, as opposed to semi-enclosed or exposed turrets, would be necessary; the turrets were also power-operated in order to traverse with the speed and manoeuvrability necessary to keep up with the new generations of opposing fighter aircraft. A key innovation of the Wellington was its geodesic construction, devised by aircraft designer and inventor Barnes Wallis.

The fuselage was built from 1, elements, consisting of duralumin W-beams which formed into a metal framework.

Wooden battens were screwed to the beams and were covered with Irish linen ; the linen, treated with layers of dope , formed the outer skin of the aircraft. The construction proved to be compatible with significant adaptations and alterations including greater all-up weight, larger bombs, tropicalisation, and the addition of long-range fuel tanks. The metal lattice gave the structure considerable strength, with any single stringer able to support a portion of load from the opposite side of the aircraft.

Heavily damaged or destroyed beams on one side could still leave the aircraft structure viable; as a result, Wellingtons with huge areas of framework missing were often able to return home when other types would not have survived, leading to stories of the aircraft's 'invulnerability'. A further advantage of the geodesic construction of the wings was its enabling of a unique method for housing the fuel, with each wing containing three fuel tanks within the unobstructed space provided between the front and rear spars outboard of the engines. This is the reported reason why Wellingtons and Warwicks for that matter were not used as glider tugs.

On 4 September , less than 24 hours after the commencement of hostility, a total of 14 Wellingtons of No. The effectiveness of the raid was diminished by a combination of poor weather and high amounts of anti-aircraft fire. During this opening raid, a pair of Wellingtons became the first aircraft to be lost on the Western Front. On 3 December , 24 Wellingtons of No. Aircraft: Merlin Engines P. IV Merlin 45 or 46 Engine P. Aircraft Inspection Schedule Spitfire P.

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Pilot's notes for Wellington III, X, XI, XII, XIII & XIV (2 engines)

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